Cross Border Retirement Income: Canada Pension Plans, Canadian Old Age Security, U.S. Social Security and the Windfall Elimination Provision

Cross Border Retirement Income: Canada Pension Plans, Canadian Old Age Security, U.S. Social Security and the Windfall Elimination Provision

Calling all eligible benefit holders of the Canada Pension Plan (CPP), Canadian Old Age Security (OAS) and U.S. Social Security (SS)……….

Does your or your spouse’s story narrate a history of employment in both Canada and the U.S.? If so, you may have the privilege of drawing from SS, OAS and CPP. The confusion lies amidst the qualifications and how these benefits interact with one another given the Windfall Elimination Provision (WEP).

Let’s break it down……

Social Security (SS)

To qualify for retirement benefits under U.S. Social Security, you must have 40 credits of covered work.  Each credit represents a quarter (i.e. 3 months) of full-time employment.  Thus, generally speaking, you must have 10 years of full time employment in order to qualify for retirement benefits.

All monthly benefits are based on your Primary Insurance Amount (PIA), which is the amount you would receive if you retired at your full retirement age (FRA). The FRA is age 65 for people born before 1938, gradually increasing to age 67 for those born in 1960 and later.

You can choose to take it as early as age 62, resulting in a 25% reduction in benefits. At a more granular level, the monthly PIA is reduced by 5/9ths of 1% for each of the first 36 months before your FRA. You can also choose to earn delayed retirement credits (DRCs) for any month from FRA up to age 70.

DRCs increase the benefit for the retired worker but not the spouse (if utilizing the spousal benefit). If you were born in 1943 or later, you earn 8% DRCs for each full year (prorated for months) up to age 70 for a maximum increase of 32%.

Individuals have the opportunity to take a SS benefit on the greater of their own record or 50% of their spouse’s SS benefit.

Canadian Old Age Security (OAS)

The rules to qualify for full OAS benefits under the Canadian system are centered on residency in Canada beyond the age of 18, not employment history. A full benefit is received when an individual has accumulated a Canadian residence history of 40 years.

The pension can commence as early as the month following one’s 65th birthday or be delayed as late as age 70. By deferring one’s OAS, the benefit increases by 0.6% per month/7.2% per year, which equals a 36% increase if OAS is deferred to age 70. Partial OAS benefits may be available in certain situations. Let’s review a few scenarios:

Let’s assume you’ve lived in Canada less than 40 years and you are currently residing in Canada. As long as you are 65 years or older, a legal resident of Canada or Canadian citizen, and have lived in Canada at least 10 years since the age of 18, you are eligible for a prorated OAS benefit.

To take it a step further, let’s assume the same scenario with a bit of a twist. Instead of currently residing in Canada, you are now living in the U.S. These circumstances dictate you must have resided in Canada for a minimum of 20 years since the age of 18 in order to receive a partial benefit.

If neither of these examples apply to you, there may still be an opportunity to collect on the benefit if the country in which you currently reside has a social security agreement with Canada.

One final item on OAS; if one were to reside in Canada at the time of receipt of the OAS benefit, the individual may be subject to the OAS clawback. This would be created when your income exceeds certain threshold levels.

For the 2019 tax year, the OAS clawback kicks in when income exceeds, $77,580. On the other hand, if OAS payments are made to a physical resident of the U.S. – and not a Canadian physical or tax resident – the clawback provisions are eliminated, and the entire benefit is paid to the recipient. No OAS clawback would apply.

Canada Pension Plan (CPP)

Unlike Old Age Security, CPP is based upon your pension contributions through your employment record, subject to certain maximums. As long as you’ve made at least one contribution to the plan, you are entitled to receive a CPP benefit.

This benefit is available at age 65, but one can opt for a reduced benefit as early as age 60 (reduced by 7.2% annually) or a delayed benefit as late as age 70 (increased by 8.4% annually). In addition, the CPP benefit is not subject to any clawbacks.

How then do these benefits tie in with the Windfall Elimination Provision (WEP)?

Understanding the Windfall Elimination Provision

Under Title II of the Social Security Act, the Windfall Elimination Provision was born. It authorized the Social Security Administration to reduce an individual’s Social Security benefit in the event the recipient was also receiving a foreign pension (e.g. CPP). To understand the “why” behind the WEP, it’s important to comprehend how the SS benefit is calculated, specifically the Primary Insurance Amount (PIA).

A worker’s PIA is based off their average monthly earnings separated into three amounts. These values are then multiplied utilizing three distinct factors. Here’s an example:

For a worker who turns 62 in 2018, the first $895 of average monthly earnings is multiplied by 90%, earnings between $895 and $5,397 by 32%, and the balance by 15%. The sum of these three amounts equals the PIA, which is then either increased or decreased depending on when a worker decides to draw SS. This is how the monthly payment is determined.

Social security was meant to replace part of an individual’s pre-retirement earnings. With the previous calculation in mind, one can conclude that workers with lower average monthly earnings have a higher percentage of their pre-retirement earnings replaced via Social Security than those with higher average monthly earnings.

For example, a 62 year old worker with average earnings per month of $3,000 could receive a benefit at FRA of $1,479 (49 percent of their pre-retirement earnings), increased by cost of living adjustments. For a worker with $8,000 of average earnings per month, the benefit starting at FRA could be $2,636 (32 percent of their pre-retirement earnings) plus cost of living adjustments.

For those individuals whose primary job wasn’t covered by Social Security, yet had their benefits calculated as if they were a long term, low-wage worker, they would end up receiving a benefit that would cover a higher percentage of their earnings, plus a pension from a job for which they didn’t pay Social Security taxes. This is true for someone who spent time working for an employer in Canada, earning CPP credits.

Under the Windfall Elimination Provision (WEP) the calculation for a worker’s Social Security benefit needs to account for the CPP payment. The 90% factor on the first $895 of monthly average earnings (when estimating PIA), could be reduced depending on the number of years of U.S. earnings history. The WEP is eliminated once a worker has 30 or more years of substantial earnings in the U.S.

The U.S. Social Security Administration has an Online WEP Calculator that is available via: https://www.ssa.gov/planners/retire/anyPiaWepjs04.html

Despite the current provisions of WEP, a U.S. Class Action lawsuit has been filed on behalf of Canadians who receive SS benefits and have been impacted by WEP.  The suit was recently filed in the State of Indiana against the SSA. The crux of the lawsuit is whether the application of WEP against individuals who also receive the same benefits in Canada is lawful.

The Plaintiffs in the Class Action are claiming that the application of WEP to U.S. benefit recipients is unlawful and presents a violation of the plain meaning of the U.S. Social Security Act, U.S. Social Security Act Regulations and the Social Security Agreement (1983-1984) between United States and Canada (the “Social Security Agreement”).

The Plaintiffs are seeking retroactive payment of the amounts that have been deducted through the application of WEP and the ending of the application of WEP moving forward.  The claim has been certified but has yet to move forward at the trial court level.

In Summary: Although a worker’s Social Security is potentially reduced by CPP, the good news is that OAS does not factor into the WEP calculation.

Whether the WEP impacts your Social Security depends on the uniqueness of your individual circumstances and the potential result of the Class Action Lawsuit.

If you think you might be impacted by WEP, we recommend you have a cross border financial planner such as Cardinal Point analyze your situation.

https://www.ssa.gov/pubs/EN-05-10045.pdf#page=2

VR Real Life Offers a New Web Directory for Virtual Reality Allowing Producers to Get Paid

VRRealLife.com is offering a new online directory for virtual reality videos and information on VR. It serves as a rich platform and gathering place for enthusiasts, businesses, video producers and more.

The site also gives video producers an important way to monitize their videos by including their site or social media link below videos and comments.

Membership to www.VRRealLife.com is free. The platform furthers its own interests by placing their site link below each video.

Virtual Reality is a very hot topic among audiences everywhere. The site has been growing quickly as it offers a constantly expanding directory of videos covering just about every industry.

“Lots of people still think of VR as video games. While it’s true VR is used for gaming, VR is also being used by a variety of industries to attract audiences, explain their products, and train employees and customers.

Members can create their own channels and playlists. This can attract significant audience`s that can become prospects, customers, and drive improved profits for the producer and the company they represent.

Members are also encouraged to post comments and reviews. All this makes the site a welcoming and enthusiastic community for all things pertaining to virtual reality. Content authors are encouraged to include a link to their site to attract audiences for their own commercial or cultural interests.

In the future VR Real Life plans video contests where producers have their fans and clients vote. Prizes will be impressive. This gives videos more audience, expands the platform’s following, and gives members a no-cost way to advertise their product, service, brand, or idea.

To learn more visit www.VRRealLife.com and browse the many categories currently displayed. The site is quickly becoming an important directory for VR and a frequent destination for consumers and businesses interested in the Virtual Reality.

“But What About Making $$$ With Our Videos?”

When uploading your videos you are able to add a link to your products and services in the content area.

This gives you a way to recoup your investment of time and expense in producing your video.

For some this can be a rich market for finding commercial success with their video production. We strongly encourage video production companies, independent producers, and other companies that create VR as part of their training, education, advertising, and public relations campaigns.

Other categories include, Real Estate, and Start-ups.

We urge you to stop by VRRealLife.com and create your own FREE MEMBERSHIP. There is no charge to participate.

When you become a member and upload your videos, you can add a link to encourage viewers to visit your site, service, product, video channel, or other commercial or cultural outlet. The choice is yours.

This gives you an easy way to find new audiences, grab more leads, develop enthusiastic customers, and generate lots of additional sales.  All without any cost!

SAP Certification & Courses Online: Its About Mastering The Tricks of Modern Businesses

SAP is a very effective and powerful business tool that allows modern businesses to relish operational and suave business performance.

The SAP courses offered online has several latest modules and portfolio of the application that has some incredible features.

It is fascinating to note that SAP is a German programming system, but with Sap training anyone can learn it and reap its benefits.

With the help of a sap user manual, and effective learning of the programming software, you can administer various parts of running an enterprise in the modern world.

This include Finance, MRP, Production control and several others. If you want to begin your career in a core IT profession, you can undertake a training course that is exclusively aimed to teach you SAP.

Online SAP tutorial

SAP has already become an essential part of modern businesses with its ability in managing performances and reporting systems of the businesses. It stands for Systems, Applications and Products in data processing.

With SAP certification courses online you can learn about the business aspects of SAP to augment and improve the performance of businesses for reaching the proposed target in an effective manner.

With SAP tutorial you can learn to manage FRICE that is Forms Reports Interfaces Conversions and Enhancements of the contemporary business world effectively.

The SAP courses offered online is directed to give you the best training on all SAP modules.

They will provide you with Sap fico tutorial, SAP BO, SAP ABAP and others. Such training programs are designed torefine your skills and endow your knowledge in the best conceivable manner.

Uses of SAP

The SAP courses offered online can teach you about exclusive sets of incorporated and cross-functional business procedures.

With Sap  training, you can learn about the financials and controlling of businesses that can increase the output and understanding of the same.

The sap training course can help you learn to implement SAP to reduce inventory cost to a great extent, and to boost up its flexibility.

SAP is very effective in solving crucial and acute challenges of businesses; it plays an important role in reducing the risks.

Besides all the important usages, SAP also helps to gain greater ROI faster it optimizes strategies and aligns them and controls IT spending and operations.It is used in improving financial management and other factors.

Important Things to Investigate When Buying Business

One of the most important things involved in the process of selling any kind of businesses is due diligence.

If you’ve found a company that seems to be a good purchase candidate, it is important to conduct a careful analysis of that company.

Here are some important things that you should investigate during the due diligence process.

Profit & Loss Balance Sheets
First of all, you should find out if the business you are considering buying is a profit or non-profit company.

In both cases, you will need to look at the profit and loss balance sheets.

These sheets and statements describe the financial performance of the company you are buying.

It is strongly recommended to review five to seven years of profit and loss history in order to get a clear idea of the overall financial pattern for that company.

If needed you should also take the help of accounting services singapore that can help you in dealing with all the financials of the business in a better way.

Supporting Financial Documents
The next very important thing that you should check is the supporting financial documents.

These documents include receivables and accounts payable ledgers, along with depreciation schedules and other related reports.

As a potential buyer, you can request a more thorough analysis that may include a review of bank records, vendor invoices, tax returns, and sales etc.

Other supporting documents that should check include employee files and equipment maintenance records.

Premises & Equipment Lease 
You should hire an experienced attorney who can review premises and equipment lease agreements.

This will help you understand the lessee responsibilities that you hold upon those agreements.

Business Permits & Licenses
When buying business, you should carefully check the validity of permits and licenses.

It is strongly advised to check these permits and licenses with the issuing agency. This will help you eliminate any doubts about these permits and licenses.

List of Assets
As a potential buyer, you should check all those assets that you will be buying.

A complete list of all assets that are to be sold to you will be referenced shortly before the closing of the escrow.

That’s the right time when you should investigate all of the machinery, equipment and other facilities of the business.

This will help you make sure that every asset is in proper working condition.

Industry Specific investigation
It is another very important part of the due diligence process.

In this investigation, you will need to check the company’s equipment in accordance with the new environmental regulations.

You should also make sure the company owner is using up-to-date vending machines.

If it is using old or out-of-date vending machines, the owner may not be able to outperform its competitors that are using new vending technology.

Due diligence is undoubtedly a critical process, but it very important because it helps you identify the flaws in a business or company.

If you are aware of these flaws, you will be able to secure a good purchase deal and make necessary changes in the company after acquisition.

That’s why carefully investigate all above mentioned aspects when buying any kind of business.

The Rise of Business VoIP Systems: Is the Traditional Landline Dying?

As the technology continues to advance at a rate that is phenomenal, some aspects of technology are fading.

Is this true with the landline? There have been many things that have replaced the landline, such as mobile phones, Skype, and especially VoIP.

Business VoIP is an amazing idea to replace your old landline for a faster, more reliable service.

Can we expect to see the obsolete landline telephone fade from existence, much like dial up and the sound of a connecting modem, or will these phones that have kept us in touch survive?

There has been an approximate fifty-five percent drop in the use of landline phones in the past decade.

In fact business phone systems such as On-Site VoIP Systems, PBX Hosted VoIP and IP phones dubai have taken over how we look at calling today.

Some experts are already saying that landlines will be practically nonexistent by the year 2025. If this prediction is true or not remains to be seen, but there is a good chance that this can happen.

Advantages of Business VoIP

Running a landline for a small business can cost a lot of money.

One wouldn’t consider the landline to be such a huge expense, but when you have multiple people on the phone every day for most of the day, the minutes can add up and cause a hefty bill that isn’t pretty to see.

Business VoIP could easily replace the landline and cut costs, but is this truly the answer?

Business VoIP is, by far, the most-used landline replacement among businesses of any size.

Instead of having two separate bills that have to be paid, VoIP can take audio data directly through your existing broadband connection, and transfer them to the recipient.

This new technology could easily replace the telephone in a decade or so.

Investing in Winnipeg Real Estate for Better Returns and Profits

Winnipeg, a hotspot for investment in property, has opened a door of golden opportunity for investors; the credit goes to huge inward investment and rapid jobs growth that is driving up demand for property therein.

When you want to get handsome income from your investment, you can give your property on rent so that you can earn decent income every month from your investment.

No matter whether you are dealing in a land, property, residential house or an office your investment should be safe and profitable.

Do make an inquiry about the initial as well as additional costs if any while buying the property in Winnipeg.

The additional costs of the housing may be inclusive of multiple additional amenities like water, electricity, security, television, phone charges, parking, hot water, heat etc.

One must certainly consider the overall cost before making any decision.

At times, a property may appear to be quite cheap, but the actual cost of buying it may be pretty higher. Especially if you are dealing in property from foreign the exchange rates provided by banks may be too high.

To get rid of these heavy prices, you can get in touch with companies like Knightsbridge FX that can offer you good exchange prices.

Furthermore if you are really interested in making an investment here in Winnipeg for getting better returns on your investments then it is a good decision to get in contact with a realtor or a property dealer.

They can help you in knowing about all the details about the property before making your final deal.

Mortgaging has become a very popular way of taking out loans. And this can be made further easy if you get in contact with professional dealers, especially for people who have bad credit.

Getting in contact with and talking to professionals can helps you take wise decision fast so that you can end up the deal quickly and profitably.

It is just a matter of few bucks; a specialized person will bring you lots of potential sellers along with many attractive deals that are worth considering.

How California Taxes a Canadian Trust?

As we discussed in a previous article, many Canadians are shocked to learn that California taxes their RRSPs. Canadians are often also surprised and dismayed to learn that their Canadian trust could be subject, inadvertently, to the long arm of California’s tax system.

Even just having a beneficiary – think trust fund baby – of a Canadian trust who lives in California is enough to subject the trust to California tax.

California taxes a trust if the trust has (a) California source income; (b) a California trustee or co-Trustee; or (c) a California beneficiary.

California’s taxation of a trust’s income that is attributable to California sources, for example rental income from property located in California, is not a strange concept.

It’s California’s taxation of non-California trusts with California beneficiaries that – to borrow a line from Gowan’s song of the same name – is a “Strange Animal” and which will be the focus of this post.

In California, having just one beneficiary who resides in the state can subject the trust income to California tax in a proportion equal to the number of beneficiaries who are California residents.

With California aggressively chasing trusts with a nexus to the state for failure to file income tax returns, Canadians who are beneficiaries of Canadian trusts should be aware of the tax implications that moving to California entails.

The law in California subjects some or all of the income of a non-grantor trust to California income tax if any non-contingent beneficiary is a California resident.

As you can see, the key distinction in the law is that a California beneficiary’s interest in the trust must be non-contingent for California to tax the trust.

Hence, a non-California trust with contingent beneficiaries residing in California will not be subject to tax in California so long as there are no distributions to the beneficiary.

So, how do we determine between a contingent and non-contingent beneficiary?

Simply put, a contingent beneficiary is one whose interest is subject to a condition that must be satisfied for the beneficiary’s interest in the trust to vest.

For example, most trusts are drafted whereby a trustee may make distributions for a beneficiary’s health, education, maintenance, support, care, comfort, etc.

This constitutes a contingent interest in the trust property because the beneficiary’s beneficial interest is subject to the trustee’s sole and absolute discretion.

On the other hand, a beneficiary’s interest will become non-contingent if the terms of the trust agreement subsequently remove a condition to the beneficiary’s enjoyment of trust income or principal.

For example, the beneficiaries of a trust that provides for the distribution of all trust income after a certain age, or provides a stipend to the beneficiary, or allows the beneficiary a withdrawal right, would be considered non-contingent.

The determination of whether a beneficiary is contingent or non-contingent comes down to the distribution standards and rights of the beneficiary under the trust agreement and the trustee’s exercise of discretion in administering the trust.

Now that we’ve covered some of the basic laws applicable to California’s taxation of a trust, let’s look at this simple example.

Joe had a long and successful career playing in the NHL. To the diehard fans of one of the teams he played for, Joe is considered a legend and the second best player, after the team’s current young phenom, to ever play for the team. Over his career, Joe managed to amass a vast fortune from both playing hockey and endorsing many products.

Through some good advice from his tax professionals, Joe set up a trust in Ontario to minimize his tax bill and to provide for his only child’s future. After graduating college, Madison, Joe’s only child and the sole beneficiary of Joe’s trust, decided to move to Hollywood to pursue an acting career.

Madison, for lack of a better term, is a trust fund baby. The terms of Joe’s non-grantor trust provide that the Ontario based trustee shall distribute to Madison one-third of the trust income annually for her lifetime.

Because the trustee is required under the terms of the trust to distribute trust income, Madison is entitled to such amounts and her interest is not subject to a condition.

As a result, Madison is a non-contingent beneficiary regardless of the fact that she is entitled to just one-third of the trust income.

Because Madison is the sole non-contingent beneficiary of the trust and a resident of California, the trust will be subject to California taxation. The trust would have to report all of its income for California income tax purposes.

Specifically, Madison will be taxed on the income distributed to her, while the trust will be taxed on the remaining income.

At Cardinal Point, we specialize in working with Canadians in California and we diligently work with our clients to ensure compliance with their federal, California and Canadian income tax and reporting requirements.

Cryptocurrency Trading Tips and Popular Terms for Beginners

Due to its demand and number of people investing in cryptocurrency medium, it has generated attention not only of general public but also other government bodies who function as lending bodies of funds.

With cryptocurrency you can easily enjoy online and offline purchase of various commodities. While Bitcoin is being used, the transactions are stored in a central network called the cryptocurrency and the medium through which they are stored is blockchain.

When you are up for cryptocurrency trading, you have your own risks and rewards. But all you need to do is be an attentive trader to avoid any losses and attract wins.

Here are some of the cryptocurrency trading popular terms, tips, strategies which can help you monitor price action before finalizing any trade. Take a look…

Ask price: The lowest price at which people at a specific trading site are ready to sell their cryptocurrencies.

Bid price: The price most of the buyers are ready to pay for the crypto coins.

Volume of the site: The number of financial units sold in a specific time period.

Market Depth: The number of cryptocurrencies people has put on sale on the trading website but have not been bought yet.

Cryptocurrency signal: Cryptocurrency signals are the automated computer generated signals used by traders for getting profitable trade.

Speculator: He is a person who wants to make profits by purchasing Bitcoins at a lower price and sell at a higher price.

Arbitration: The action by which one can make profit by taking benefit of the different in price which persists between two trading sites.

High frequency trading: The action by which you make profit by forecasting price movement in short time period.

Bubble: The event which happens because of heightened demand for coins.

Margin trading: Risky speculation cryptocurrencies are traded with borrowed money. It gives you high profit margin along with the risk of forced liquidation.

Leverage trading: Trading form under contract that allows you to trade for more than your invested amount. Some firms give you leverage up to 20-1.

With these tips, you can surely get an insight about cryptocurrency trading so that you can easily trade and earn huge profits.

Understanding About Financial Spread Betting

We all understand how hard it is to make a little money now days. At times, it doesn’t matter how hard you are working, you still are not making enough. This is one of the biggest reasons why individuals are looking for other ways of making money.

If you are the type of person that likes trying new things, has a grasp on the financial market, and is willing to be risky, then financial spread betting might be something that you could think about trying.

You must be cautious, although, that you are going to be dealing with high risk products and that you should never be investing more money than you are willing to lose.

The way to give investors a chance to participate in purchasing and selling across the financial markets without needing to own a certain financial instrument physically is know as financial spread betting or spread betting on margin.

Those that are trading are able to bet on if they think that the directions of the prices are going to go up or if they are going to go down.

They are able to make their own theories based on a wide variety of instruments that may include stock market indices, shares of stocks, and foreign exchange and stock market commodities without the rule of needing to own the investments that they are wishing to bet on.

About This Type Of Betting

This type of betting is actually a great way to make some bets on what you pick that is available among the markets. It could be the stock market, commodities market, forex market or stock indices.

You may even choose how little or how much you would like to stake in the trades. One of the main things that individuals like about this type of investment is that it is free from CGT or capital gains tax.

This meaning that you are able to invest without needing to worry about deductions from the taxes that are brought on the gains. Rather than the traditional methods of share trading where there is CGT being applied.

Always make sure that you talk with your local tax authorities to make sure that the CGT is not being applied to your jurisdiction, as it is different in every country.

Knowing The Risks Of Spread Betting

You need to know that this type of betting comes with a lot of risk. If you are an individual that is looking for a good source of income, then this will not be for you. This is a thing that you should never depend on.

You are not able to provide for the future of your children with this. Even those that are experts in this sort of field may find it a little difficult due to the risks that are involved. If you would like to make the risk less, you need to be learning about a lot of things.

You need to be aware of this before you start to place the money and make your bets. Although, financial spread betting still has very good benefits even though it has a lot of risk.

Cryptocurrency and Blockchain: Best medium of investment

ICO or initial coin offering is generally used by startup companies that wish to raise their initial capital investment that might be required to flourish in their business. This also helps startups to bypass rigorous process of obtaining loans from banks or other investment agencies.

When a cryptocurrency firm wishes to initiate or raise funds through ICO option, then their first step would be to create a plan of action describing complete details about the upcoming project, fund that will be required and the project completion date.

ICO trading is also gaining much popularity among individuals and institutions who want to invest in latest ICOs to gain handsome returns.

Cryptocurrency brokers are therefore now available for to help people trade successful in cryptocurrencies as well as ICOs. Their objective is to offer a wide circle of people an opportunity to gain high rewards by making use of highly volatile cryptocurrency price along with advanced tools that include machine learning and blockchain technologies.

While many people are still unaware of what a cryptocurrency and ICO is, there are various banks and other financial institutions and individuals that have understood its importance and use it as a medium of transaction. It is therefore one of the best means of investment today which can give handsome returns on your investment.

Cryptocurrency in simple terms can be termed as a networking chain that works to register various users, their account details and account balance. When there are complete chains of records that need to be linked then this is possible with the help of blockchain.

Each block in the network has a typical design and store complete information of users that are inherent and can be easily modified. The first blockchain was conceptualized in the year 2008 and all of these invention evolved as a byproduct of making Bitcoin.

With cryptocurrency and blockchain you can have a decentralized network that can provide you with a single entity of network to do this job for you. ICO deal with people or supporter who is interested in investments and expect meaningful returns from their investments.